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Landslides are a natural hazard in many countries and often affect civil engineering structures and projects.  Definition of its three-dimensional shape with particular reference to the shear surfaces and failure planes;  the definition of the hydrogeological regime with regard to water input to the landslide and its distribution within the slip mass; detection of movement by or within the slip mass and the characterization of such movements.


The site investigation costs may be very high since landslides may be extremely large, structurally complex and topographically severe, it is therefore advantageous in suitable circumstances to carry out geophysical surveys to define the structure and to guide optimum siting of boreholes and pits, and ultimately the installation of piezometers, inclinometers etc. Standard surface geophysical techniques including the seismic, electrical resistivity, acoustic emission and borehole methods have all been applied with varying success to look at a landslide before a major site investigation starts.