In mining research activity, it is necessary to determine ore reserves to support the business feasibility analysis and the investment plan. However the process of calculating reserves, especially due to campaigns, can be expensive and time-consuming and often prohibitive in small-scale mining. Geophysic developed some methodologies to minimize the cost of mineral exploration in small-scale mining, using geophysics techniques to generate a target-oriented, low-risk, cost-efficient drilling plan. Geophysical surveying works were conducted to identify the depth of subsurface layers such as to generate informations for the preliminary model of the deposit and the drilling plan.


The targets for geophysical surveying were determined based on the information obtained through topographic and geostructural analysis. Due to mining problems, the geophysical methods mostly  used are borehole logging, seismic reflection surveying, microseismic monitoring, electromagnetic imaging, and electrical surveys. These allow the production of detailed maps of the subsurface geology and to infer the geotechnical properties of the subsurface. Mining  requires high calibre geotechnical information so that the response of the ground to mine can be predicted and controlled. Areas of active research interest include 3D seismic reflection surveying, inversion of seismic reflection results, analysis of geophysical borehole logs to provide geological and geotechnical models, borehole radar surveying in support of reef mining in hard rock environments, data fusion, geological sensing in support of mine automation and regional scale 3D modelling of the ground response to mine. Other important methods used in the geophysical surveying for small scale were those of resistivity and induced polarization. These methods and techniques were chosen based on relatively low cost, ease and speed of mobilization and application, good response to low depths, and efficiency to individualize ore layers.