GPR systems use a pulsed electromagnetic (radio wave) transmitted via a tuned frequency antenna that can penetrate soils, rock, concrete, and many other natural and man-made materials. Reflection events from geological or hydrological boundaries, between sufficiently contrasting materials, are recorded by a receiver antenna. GPR energy pulse is reflected back to the antenna. Energy also keeps traveling through the material until it either dissipates (attenuates) or the GPR control unit has closed its time window. The rate of signal attenuation varies widely and is dependent on the properties of the material through which the pulse is passing. A time-depth cross-section (radargram) of the shallow subsurface is constructed as the radar system is moved along a survey line. The radargram can be depth calibrated to enable detailed interpretations knowing the investigated materials.
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