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For earth scientists, a wide range of geophysical surveying methods exist for geothermal energy investigations. For geophysics, location of a geothermal reservoir may be determined by use of seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, magnetic or/and gravity methods. Effects of exploitation of a geothermal reservoir can be monitored using micro-seismic, micro-gravity, geo-chemical and temperature/pressure techniques. Though these may require complex methodology and relatively advanced mathematical treatment in interpretation, much information may be derived from simple qualitative assessment of the survey or monitoring data. Many of these methods are often used in combination to obtain a plausible inference. At the interpretation stage, ambiguity arising from the results of one survey may often be removed by the consideration of results from a second survey method.


The occurrence of surface manifestations in the country’s rift valley regions encouraged several people to carry out various geophysical investigations to establish the subsurface structure with a view of establishing its geothermal potential. Various levels of success have been achieved with each of the techniques. Changes in technology saw the deployment of modern geophysical techniques that included transient electromagnetics (TEM) and magnetotellurics (MT). They made possible for shallow and deep conductors to be accurately imaged and accurate geothermal models more developed.