Groundwater exploration is the investigation of underground formations to understand the hydrologic cycle,to know the groundwater quality, and to identify the nature, number and type of aquifers. There are different groundwater exploration methods. Surface geophysical method is one of them. This method provides valuable information regarding the vertical successions of subsurface geo-materials in terms of their individual thicknesses and corresponding resistivity values. It is rapid and much effective in estimating aquifer thickness of an area. However hydrogeological and geological investigations were also incorporated in addition to the geophysical surveying activities for the betterment of the project. Finally, the intended well site locations with their corresponding thickness and resistivity values were identified using the integrated approaches.
Groundwater exploration programs however could have resulted in low success rates of borehole drilling because of the lack of a systematic and methodical approach. The available conventional geophysical techniques, one dimensional (1-D) electrical resistivity profiling and sounding as well as the electromagnetic (EM) methods, are able to select suitable sites for successful borehole drilling due to their capacity to successfully demarcate areas which are likely aquifer potential zones for successful groundwater abstraction. Complex geological setting of groundwater systems cause the adoption and application of a systematic methodological approach in groundwater exploration utilising effective geophysical techniques.
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